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Title: Challenges and opportunities of using interleaved TMS/fMRI data to personalize treatments for depression Authors:  Kristin Linn - University of Pennsylvania (United States) [presenting]
Abstract: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation that can be safely delivered in trains of pulses (repetitive TMS; rTMS) to treat symptoms of depression in patients for whom standard treatments have failed. Recent advances in technology enable rTMS to be interleaved with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), producing real-time measures of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in response to single pulses of TMS. We describe challenges and opportunities that arise when working with interleaved TMS/fMRI data to understand better and treat depression. We highlight the importance of study design for answering pertinent scientific questions. Based on findings from a small rTMS study that piloted a new individualized treatment protocol, we provide recommendations for the design and analysis of future rTMS studies.